Answer: The Spanish Tragedy by Thomas Kyd (1585-90?).
The first English tragedy is Gorboduc (1561) by Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton. Though they followed Seneca’ model of revenge theme, critics credit Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy as the typical revenge drama in English.
- Ralph Roister Doister by Nicholas Udall is considered as the first regular comedy in English.
2. ………………………..is called as the father of English essay
Answer: Francis Bacon.
Bacon followed the French essayist Montaigne’s use of the word essay and published a collection titled as Essays. It was discussions on a variety of topics such as “of Truth”, “Of Adversity”, “Of Marriage and the Single Life” etc.
- Father of English Poetry - Chaucer. Chaucer’s Prologue to Canterbury Tales presents a detailed picture of 14th century English society.
- Father of English Prose – Alfred, King of Wessex. He attempted to improve the quality of Old English and translated many Latin texts into English. His role is vital in organizing The Anglo Saxon Chronicle.
- Father of English Criticism – John Dryden. Though Philip Sidney published Apology for Poetry in 1595, the first systematic study of English literature was done by Dryden. Hence he is the father of English Criticism.
Answer: Transitional poets.
- Transitional poets follow both romantic and neoclassical elements in their writings. They are romantic in the use of lyricism, description of nature and rustic life, presentation of marginalized and the melancholic tone. In narrative techniques, they made of Neo-classical conventions such as personification of abstract ideas, artistic finish, didactic elements etc…