Wednesday, 7 February 2018

A Note on ‘Kitchen Sink Drama’

The British drama of post 1940 is often labeled as Neo-Realist drama, Drama of Non-Communication, Kitchen Sink drama, Dark Comedy etc…Though the dramatists of the time didn’t agree to belong to any of these movements, there are certain features common to all these plays and playwrights and their use of theatrical devices are strikingly different from that of pre world war II stage setting.

  One of the striking features of these playwrights was their willingness to experiment and innovate with themes and presentation of drama. These young playwrights had an early beginning in theatre and many of them had their first theatrical production in their twenties. They were familiar to the stage and the techniques of the theatre. This enabled them to stage often unexpected and highly dramatic productions. Harold Pinter, Arnold Wesker, John Osborne, John Arden, Edward Bond, Charles Wood, Joe Orton were some of the prominent members of the group.

            The introduction of highly sensational scenes put these dramatists apart. By producing fantastic and outrageous content, they surprise and shock the audience. The most unexpected things were performed on the stage. The arrival of Uncle Tom in N F Simpsons Resounding Tinkle is an example of the surprising effect of these performances. In the play, a character informs the audience of the appearance of Uncle Tom. As the audience expects the character, a tall, dark attractive woman appears on the stage and the viewers are forced to give up their preconceived notions of reality. In Arnold Wesker’s Four Seasons, a woman bares her breasts in order to be embraced. The scene from Edward Bond’s Saved also testifies this love of the sensational. In the play, a baby is stoned to death in its perambulator on the open stage.

              They dared to dramatize the problems of their time on the stage. Their plays dealt with contemporary issues such as homosexuality, prostitution, abortion, violent or casual deaths, disfigurement etc…The concern for the underdogs can be seen in the works of John Arden and Arnold Wesker. They presented issues related to housing projects, ways of bureaucracy, slum clearance, problems of local government etc….

                They were rooted in theatre and many of them were actors. This enabled them to explore the possibilities of the stage and they introduced new dramatic technique such as song, dance, pantomime and television commercials. It is also to be noted that these dramatists were nor united by any particular ideology so that they approach issues from various angles. The theatergoers were encouraged to form their own conclusions.

Tuesday, 30 January 2018

Six Semester BA English Project Details of Calicut University

The final year degree students of Calicut University are required to submit a project report of their research work carried out during the five and six semesters of their graduation programme. The research methodology sessions are to be handled by the teacher in charge during the fifth semester and the report is to be submitted by the end of sixth semester. The course is intended to introduce the basic format of research activities and writing. 

The Project Report should consist of the following:-

1.     25 to 30 A-4 size typed or printed pages
2.      Font: Times New Roman
3.      Letter size: 12 for running matter
4.      Letter Size: 16 for Headings
5.      Line Spacing: 1.5
6.      Page Numbers: aligned to the top-center
7.      Margins of 1.25 inches on all sides.
8.      References if any may be given as Footnotes.
9.      Spiral binding.
1 Minor desirable variations can be adopted by the DLPC (Depat. Level Project Committee) of a College.

Structure of the Project Report is as follows:-
Page i)

Project Report Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Award of
Degree of Bachelor of Arts in English
of the University of Calicut
(Students Name)
Register Number
Emblem of the Institution
Month Year
Name of College, Address

Page ii)  Declaration by the candidate
Page iii)  Certificate from the Supervisor, countersigned by the HoD.
Page iv)  Acknowledgements if any.
Page v)  Contents

Thursday, 24 August 2017


Do you like to document your research paper as per the new edition of Modern Language Association? Click on the link MLA HANDBOOK 8TH EDITION GUIDELINES

Tuesday, 25 July 2017

Calicut University B.A/ B.Sc/ B.Com Degree English Common Course New Syllabus 2017 Admission

Dear students,

University of Calicut has updated its BA/B.Sc/ B.Com English common course syllabus from 2017 admission onward. The details of the syllabus is given below

Course Code

Title of the Course

No of Hours

No of Credits


ENGl A01

Transactions: Essential English Language Skills

72(4 hrs/wk)



ENGl A02
Ways With Words: Literatures in English
90 (5 hrs/wk)

ENG2 A03
Writing for Academic & Professional Success
72(4 hrs/wk)

ENG2 A04
Zeitgeist: Readings on Contemporary Culture
90(5 hrs/wk)

ENG3 A05
Signatures: Expressing the Self
90 (5hrs/wk)

ENG4 A06
Spectrum: Literature and Contemporary Issues
90 (Shrs/wk)

Wednesday, 24 May 2017

Female literary tradition

Showalter questions mainstream literary tradition of it sexist bias and establishes a new female literary tradition discovering and revealing women writers and their works. Her aim is to point to the existence of a powerful tradition of women's writing which was constantly ignored by traditional literary historians.

Showalter traces three stages in the evolution of the female literary tradition -  the feminine, the feminist and the female. The first stage (Feminine phase) dates from about 1840 to 1880 was that of imitation. During this period , women  wrote in an effort to equal the intellectual and  aesthetic achievement of male writers. They also internalized male assumptions about female nature. The distinguishing sign of this period was the use of male pseudonyms by women writers. The writings of Mary Ann Evans under the pseudonym George Eliot is an example for this period

The second (feminist) phase is extended from about 1880 to 1920. It was a period of protest. During this phase, women rejected the accommodating postures of femininity and used literature to dramatize the audience of wronged Womanhood.

The third phase (Female) has evolved since 1920 and still continues. In this stage, women have rejected both imitation and protest and turned to female experience as the source of an autonomous art. During this period women have thought about specific issues of female writing, style,literary forms and techniques.


The term ‘Gynocriticism’ is introduced by Elaine Showalter in her essay Towards a Feminist Poetics. It is a type of criticism that is concerned with woman as a writer or producer of textual meanings. It's concerned with the history, theme, genres and structures of literature by women. The subjects of gynocriticism includes psycho dynamics of  female creativity,  the problem of female language, the trajectory of female literary career, women's literary history and studies of particular women writers and their works

Gynocriticism has no theoretical affiliation to male theories like Marxism, structuralism and so on. It is more self contained and experimental with connections to other modes of new feminist research.  It has no affinity with  male literature; its program, instead, is to construct female framework for the analysis of women's literature.  It develops new models based on the study of experience instead of adopting male models and theories. It rejects the established male literary tradition because of it's sexist bias and seek to trace a female literary tradition. It intends to discover and reveal the hidden and neglected women writers.